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quarta-feira, 1 de outubro de 2014

Sexual dysfunction, depression, and anxiety in young women according to relationship status: an online survey



Disfunção sexual, depressão e ansiedade em mulheres jovens de acordo com o status de relacionamento: uma pesquisa on-line


Valeska Martinho PereiraI; Antonio Egidio NardiII; Adriana Cardoso SilvaIII
I MSc , Graduate Program in Psychiatry and Mental Health, Instituto de Psiquiatria (IPUB), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil Investigator, Laboratório de Pânico e Respiração, IPUB, UFRJ. National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM)
II PhD. Full professor, Graduate Program in Psychiatry and Mental Health, IPUB, UFRJ. Coordinator, Laboratório de Pânico e Respiração, IPUB, UFRJ. INCT-TM
III PhD. Adjunct professor, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niterói, RJ. Coordinator, Laboratório de Tanatologia e Psicometria, UFF. Vice coordinator, Laboratório de Pânico e Respiração, IPUB, UFRJ. INCT-TM



ABSTRACT
BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction is a common, still poorly understood problem among women. Being or not in a relationship seems to be a risk factor for sexual dysfunction.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the presence of sexual problems, anxiety, and depression in young women and to correlate findings with current relationship status (single, in a committed relationship, or married).
METHODS: Data were collected trough an online survey from a total of 155 women aged between 20 and 29 years. Sociodemographic data were collected, and both the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and the Female Sexual Function Index were applied. Data were statistically analyzed using the chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests, and groups were compared in 2 x 2 matrices using the Mann-Whitney test.
RESULTS: Single women showed a significantly higher prevalence of problems in the lubrication (45.3%), orgasm (53.1%), satisfaction (67.2%), and pain (50%) domains and also in total Female Sexual Function Index scores (60.9%) in comparison with the other groups. Additionally, significantly higher depression scores were found among single women (5.89±3.3) in comparison to those in a committed relationship (4.05±2.83). Anxiety scores were similar in all groups.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that single women have a poorer sexual function and are more likely to have mood disorders in comparison to their peers involved in stable relationships.
Keywords: Prevalence, sexual dysfunction, anxiety, depression, female.

RESUMO
CONTEXTO: Disfunção sexual é um problema comum e ainda pouco compreendido entre mulheres. Estar ou não em um relacionamento parece ser um fator de risco para disfunção sexual.
OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de problemas sexuais, ansiedade e depressão em jovens mulheres e correlacionar os achados ao estado de relacionamento atual (solteiras, em relacionamento sério ou casadas).
MÉTODOS: Dados foram coletados através de pesquisa on-line de um total de 155 mulheres com idade entre 20 e 29 anos. Foram coletados dados sociodemográficos, e a Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão e o Índice de Função Sexual Feminina foram aplicados. Os dados foram analisados através dos testes qui-quadrado e Kruskal-Wallis, e os grupos foram comparados dois a dois através do teste Mann-Whitney.
RESULTADOS: Mulheres solteiras apresentaram uma prevalência significativamente maior de problemas nos domínios lubrificação (45,3%), orgasmo (53,1%), satisfação (67,2%) e dor (50%), e também no escore total do Índice de Função Sexual Feminina (60,9%), em comparação aos outros grupos. Além disso, foram observados escores estatisticamente superiores para depressão em mulheres solteiras (5,89±3,3) quando comparadas ao grupo relacionamento sério (4,05±2,83). Os escores de ansiedade foram similares em todos os grupos.
CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados sugerem que mulheres solteiras têm um pior funcionamento sexual quando comparadas a seus pares envolvidos em relacionamentos estáveis e são mais propensas a apresentar transtornos de humor.
Descritores: Prevalência, disfunção sexual, ansiedade, depressão, mulheres.



Introduction
The first model proposed to explain the human sexual response cycle comprised four distinct phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.1 Years later, another model emphasized the importance of desire in the human sexual response cycle.2 This current model is a combination of previous models and comprises the following four phases: desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution.3
Sexual dysfunctions are impairments in the sexual response cycle or the presence of pain associated with sexual intercourse.3 Female sexual dysfunctions (FSD) can take the form of hypoactive sexual desire disorder, sexual aversion disorder, female sexual arousal disorder, female orgasmic disorder, dyspareunia, and vaginismus. In addition to these disorders, recently a new dysfunction called the persistent genital arousal disorder has also been described.4 Some risk factors for sexual dysfunction cited in the current literature include age, level of education, emotional problems, stress, and a history of sexual abuse.5
Anxiety seems to play an important role in FSD, but the relationship between both conditions is not completely clear. For instance, sexual worries and fears seem to impair sexual arousal,6 and nonsexual worries have been shown to affect sexual response.7 One study also found that women presenting complaints of vaginismus showed higher anxiety scores than controls.8
The literature suggests that depression has a close relationship with FSD, increasing the risk for development of the latter. In depressed women, hypoactive sexual desire disorder seems to be the most frequent dysfunction.9Two studies conducted in Brazil reported the prevalence of any type of sexual dysfunction to be 28 and 49%, respectively.10,11 Female orgasmic disorder presented rates between 18 and 29.3%,10,12,13 and a prevalence of 26.7% was observed for hypoactive sexual desire disorder.11 Moreover, it has been reported that only 18.8% of women seek professional help for sexual disturbances.14
During pregnancy, the sexual functioning of women was found to be reduced in the third trimester.15 Women aged 40 to 65 years with at least 11 years of formal education showed the highest rates of sexual dysfunction among middle-aged women.16 The risk factors cited were lower socioeconomic and educational levels, whereas the predictors of good sexual functioning were having a sex partner and general well-being.
Most studies evaluating sexual dysfunction focus on differences across ages groups, while other suggested risk factors remain inconsistently studied. In this sense, studying women with similar sociodemographic characteristics provides a possibility to understand how other factors possibly interact and influence sexual function.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of sexual problems, anxiety and depression in young women aged 20 to 29 years and to correlate results with different relationship statuses (single, in a committed relationship/dating, or married), so as to identify possible differences in sexual functioning.

Method
Participants and procedures
This study used an online questionnaire to collect data. An advertise describing study aims and researcher information was posted on social networks and sexuality forums and discussion groups. An internet link was provided, and any woman could access and answer the survey. Data were collected for 2 months (May and June 2011).
Inclusion criteria were being female and aged 20 to 29 years. Questionnaires with missing data and women who did not match the age criterion were excluded. A total of 169 questionnaires were completed, and 155 were included in the analysis after application of exclusion criteria.
The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (protocol no. 20-02/07). Participation was voluntary and anonymous, and all participants were informed of the objectives of the study before starting to answer the questionnaire.
Measures
Social demographics
Sociodemographic data were collected using the standardized questionnaire Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale and covered sexual orientation, marital status, religion, education level, having children, practice of physical activities, use of alcohol and tobacco, and psychiatric treatment.
The HAD scale is a self-reported instrument comprising 14 items divided into two subscales: HAD-A, which evaluates anxiety symptoms, and HAD-D, for depressive symptoms.13 Each subscale yields a separate score obtained by summing its items. The total HAD scale score is obtained by summing the final scores of each subscale. A cutoff point of 8 was used in each subscale to determine the presence or absence of depressive or anxiety disorder. The HAD scale has been translated to and validated in Brazilian Portuguese.17-19
Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI)
The FSFI is a 19-item scale that comprises six domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain.20 Each domain yields a score, obtained by summing individual item scores and multiplying the result by the domain factor. The total score is obtained by summing the final scores of all domains. The FSFI has also been validated for use in Brazilian populations.21,22 A cutoff of ≤ 26 (total score) was used to determine the presence or absence of sexual dysfunction.23 Assessment of each individual domain considered a score below 65% of the total domain (3.9 points) as suggestive of dysfunction in that particular domain.24
Data analysis
Sociodemographic data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and expressed as absolute values and percentages or as means and standard deviation (SD). Contingency tables were analyzed using the chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significance was set at p < 0.05.
Inter-group differences in the prevalence of sexual dysfunction, anxiety, and depression were determined using the chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. When a statistically significant difference was found using the Kruskal-Wallis test, 2 x 2 comparisons were performed using the Mann-Whitney test to identify the difference location. Again, significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results
The 155 women were divided into three groups, as follows: single (n = 64, 41.3%), in a committed relationship (n = 64, 41.3%), and married (n = 27, 17.4%). Mean age was 24.9±2.675 years. The majority of women were heterosexual (84.5%), had no religion (38.1%), no children (89.7%), and complete college education (81.3%). Most women had no history of psychiatric treatment (73.5%), rarely used alcohol (49.7%), did not use tobacco (90.3%), and did not practice physical activities (58.1%).
Descriptive data for all three groups (single, in a committed relationship, and married) are presented in Table 1and reveal a similar distribution of most variables (education level, religion, practice of physical activity, use of alcohol and tobacco, and psychiatric treatment). The only variables showing statistically significant difference between the groups were age and having/not having children.
Table 2 presents the total prevalence rates for anxiety, depression, each FSFI domain and the FSFI total score. Of the 155 subjects, 64 (41.3%) were considered to have sexual dysfunction. Because more than one domain may be affected in the same subject, the sum of rates exceeds 100%.


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